Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Africa can feed itself in a generation: Study

Presidents of Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi receive landmark study at retreat on African food security and climate change

Africa can feed itself. And it can make the transition from hungry importer to self-sufficiency in a single generation. The startling assertions, in stark contrast with entrenched, gloomy perceptions of the continent, highlight a collection of studies published today that present a clear prescription for transforming Sub-Saharan Africa's agriculture and, by doing so, its economy.

The strategy calls on governments to make African agricultural expansion central to decision making about everything from transportation and communication infrastructure to post-secondary education and innovation investment.

Lead author of the study,
Calestous Juma
The approach is outlined in an independent study, "The New Harvest, Agricultural Innovation in Africa," led by Harvard University professor Calestous Juma.

And it is gathering political momentum, with Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete to launch the report at a retreat of East African Community (EAC) Heads of State in Arusha, Tanzania, Thurs., Dec. 2. Following a presentation by Prof. Juma, President Kikwete will chair a discussion with Presidents Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Pierre Nkurunziza of Burundi, Mwai Kibaki of Kenya, and Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, on policies and strategies to address persistent food insecurity in the East Africa in light of climate change. 

Preliminary results of the study, financed by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, were adopted earlier this year by the 19-member Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the continent's largest trading bloc.

"African agriculture is at the crossroads," says Dr. Juma, a professor of international development at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and recognized globally for his work in applying science and technology to sustainable development.

With its vast untapped resources, Africa enjoys tremendous potential and opportunities but remains characterized by persistent food shortages, which may be worsened by climate change unless efforts to change direction are stepped up.

"We have come to the end of a century of policies that favored Africa's export of raw materials and importation of food. Africa is starting to focus on agricultural innovation as its new engine for regional trade and prosperity," he says.

"Yet Africa has abundant arable land and labor which, with an agree common approach and sound policies, could translate into greater production, incomes and food security."
"The plan would combine the use of modern science and technology, infrastructure expansion, improved technical education, and stimulation of business development. By focusing on women and rural prosperity, Africa would create a more inclusive agricultural revolution."
Key elements in the transition include:
  • Use of modern technologies (including modern biotechnology) and investment in geographical sciences for improved natural resource management;
  • Continued expansion of basic infrastructure (telecommunications, transportation, energy, and irrigation);
  • Improved technical education, especially for women and provision of experiential education;
  • Creation of new enterprises, especially in fields such as seed production, farm mechanization, food storage and processing;
  • Harmonization of trading practices that extends regional markets;
  • Close cooperation between government, industry, academia and civil society in policy formulation and implementation;
  • Leadership by presidents and prime ministers to coordinate critical input involved a diversity of powerful ministries dealing with finance, infrastructure, education, trade and industry, and regional cooperation.
"An African agricultural revolution is within reach, provided the continent can focus on supporting small-scale farmers to help meet national and regional demand for food," Prof. Juma says.

Political support is strong and growing as African presidents start to pay attention to the importance of agriculture in overall economic transformation. "They are also benefiting from exemplary leadership provided by Malawi's Bingu wa Mutharika who until recently also doubled as the country's agriculture minister.

And, Prof. Juma notes, China, India, Brazil and others are recognizing Africa's overwhelming potential with a rising level of strategic investment.

Originally intended as a series of monographs for African leaders, the work has attracted such widespread interest it is being published in book form by Oxford University Press.

According to "The New Harvest," global agriculture over the past 40 years has been characterized by per capita food production growth of 17 per cent and total production up 145 per cent. African agriculture in that time has gone in the other direction: Production of coffee, cocoa and other export commodities has grown, but food production has dropped 10 per cent since 1960 because of low investment in the sector.

Agricultural yields, farm incomes and poverty rates were stagnant and in some cases worsened during those four decades. Although 70 per cent of Africans are engaged in farming, production is so low that nearly 250 million people, one-quarter of the population, are undernourished - a figure that has risen by 100 million since 1990. One-third of sub-Saharan Africans are chronically hungry, while drought, soil degradation and disease appear endemic.
Only four per cent of the continent's cropland is irrigated. Fertilizers, pesticides and high-quality seeds are expensive and in short supply. Only a small minority of farmers uses machinery that's commonplace in Europe and North America. Deforestation is spreading as farmers seek to replace exhausted fields.

Water and energy supplies are often inadequate. Poor roads make it difficult to bring supplies and expertise to farms and get their produce to markets. Government policies, lack of investment, bloody conflicts, the HIV-AIDS epidemic and the global financial crisis all add to the problem.

In turn, agriculture's poor performance hamstrings the rest of Africa's economy.
Prof. Juma says it's important to see past the problems to recognize Africa's immense land, water and energy resources. It is the only continent with arable land readily available to expand agriculture. Southern Sudan alone could feed all Africans if properly developed, he says.

And the continent is not universally poor and underdeveloped. Some countries are doing well, advanced technology is widespread and strategies that the report recommends are being attempted, most notably in Malawi.

In very general terms, the plan would see African farmers to increase production of traditionally popular foods to be sold on the continent. Eventually, as production increased, exports would follow, spurring development of non-farm businesses.

Farming would be viewed as a knowledge-based industry that marries technology and local indigenous techniques and experience.

The process would be both top-down and community-oriented, Prof. Juma says. Central governments would set production goals and standards, and provide infrastructure, investment capital and technical help. Local groups would decide how best to achieve the goals and support their farmers.

All of the ingredients are crucial, Prof. Juma says.
  • Communications: In Africa, effective, affordable communications are transforming life - arguably to a degree greater than anywhere else on Earth. Whereas communication has traditionally involved difficult travel, more than 60 per cent of Africans now have access to mobile phones and instant messaging, through which, technical advice is more readily available on how to improve yields, weather, market prices, input costs and disease surveillance. Ordering seeds or supplies, communication with buyers, and even money exchange using airtime credit as a currency are also all far more easily accomplished thanks to mobile devices.
Notes Prof. Juma: "One way for Africa to foster inclusive economic growth is to apply innovation in agriculture which employs the majority of the people. This is also a way to address concerns that technology widens the gap between the rich and the poor. The use of module phones in rural Africa show the promise of more inclusive innovation strategies."
  • Infrastructure: "The importance of providing an enabling infrastructure for agricultural development cannot be overstated," the report says. In fact, the difficulty of transportation causes some peasant farmers to reduce production even when soil and weather conditions would allow better yields. "Without access to markets, farmers can't use what they could produce, so they produce only enough for themselves to eat," Prof. Juma says. "Farmers are smart enough not to grow crops if they are going to rot on their farms."
  • Water: More than 40 per cent of Africa's rural population lives in arid or semi-arid conditions and tens of millions live in areas with absolute water scarcity. Only four per cent of the arable land is irrigated. But the continent's many lakes and rivers could supply water to the many areas that have high-quality soil but too little moisture.
  • Energy: Africa has too little electricity but vast amounts of untapped hydro and solar potential. Building dams and other generating infrastructure would be relatively inexpensive; the major impediment is constructing transmission grids to move the power to where it's needed.
All of the infrastructure needs are connected, Prof. Juma notes. Plans for a hydroelectric generating station, for example, might be hampered, or scuttled, because a bridge on the route to the project can't handle the weight of a turbine unit or other component. Instant information about prices isn't helpful if there's no way to get farm products to markets.
To develop its infrastructure, Africa will need to train an army of engineers, Prof. Juma notes.
  • Science-based agriculture: Scientific advances have the potential to revolutionize agriculture, the report says.
Nanotechnology, for one, could be used to quickly and effectively detect and treat crop diseases, and for water purification - a critical issue given that 300 million Africans lack access to a clean supply.

Prof. Juma notes the use of improved seeds through biotechnology could dramatically increase farm yields. South Africa, for example, had 2.1 million hectares of biotechnology-improved corn in production in 2009, up 18 per cent over the previous year. From 2008 to 2009, Burkina Faso's cotton producers recorded the world's fastest adoption rate of a genetically improved crop.
  • Regionalization: African nations have begun to develop regional organizations to remove barriers to trade and promote economic expansion, and that process must accelerate the report states. Many of the countries are either relatively small or landlocked, thereby lacking the financial resources needed to invest in major infrastructure projects. Their future economic prospects depend on being part of larger regional markets.
  • New relationships: Farming areas would be recognized as "clusters" in which growers, supported by governments, would work together to develop crops and markets. "As farmer productivity is often constrained by lack of relevant technology or access to best-practice knowledge, inputs, and services, clusters may be able to provide pronounced benefits," the report says.
There would also be new strategies and relationships for spreading information and promoting adoption of new techniques.

"Communities (once) developed local leadership structures to encourage participation and the ideal use of what limited resources were available," the report says. But, "in the past few centuries, colonial intervention and the push for modern methods have often caused these structures to fail as a result of neglect or active destruction. However, these traditional organizational mechanisms can be an important way to reach a community and cause its members to use innovations or sustainable farming techniques."

Finally, the recognition of agriculture as a knowledge industry requires a new generation of universities that combine research, training, commercialization and farmer outreach under one roof. There are many examples of such models, pioneered by EARTH University in Costa Rica which trains young people to learn how to create agricultural enterprises.

Credit: Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

Expert panel addresses safety in medical imaging

CHICAGO – An expert panel convened today at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) to discuss medical imaging appropriateness, ionizing radiation from imaging procedures and efforts under way to curb overutilization, decrease radiation dose and educate patients on the risks and benefits of medical imaging.

Panel members included James A. Brink, M.D., professor and chairman of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Conn., and co-chairman of the joint Adult Radiation Protection Task Force cosponsored by the RSNA and the American College of Radiology (ACR); William R. Hendee, Ph.D., distinguished professor of radiology, radiation oncology, biophysics and bioethics at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee; and Christoph Wald, M.D., Ph.D., executive vice-chairman of the Department of Radiology at Lahey Clinic in Burlington, Mass., and associate professor of radiology at Tufts University Medical School in Boston. The panel was moderated by Mary C. Mahoney, M.D., professor of radiology and director of Breast Imaging at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center and chair of the RSNA Public Information Committee.

"Medical imaging examinations are an invaluable, but complex, set of tools in the diagnosis and treatment of patients," Dr. Mahoney said. "With this panel, we hope to address recent concerns about imaging, clear up some misconceptions regarding risk, and inform the public about what's being done to ensure their safety when undergoing medical imaging exams."

The growth in medical imaging over the past two decades has yielded important and life-saving benefits to patients. Medical imaging has allowed millions of patients to avoid more invasive diagnostic and treatment procedures. However, overutilization of medical imaging examinations can be detrimental to patients by exposing them to unnecessary radiation. Between 1980 and 2006, the annual U.S. population radiation dose from medical procedures increased seven-fold, according to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

"Imaging procedures conducted for the wrong reasons contribute to unnecessary costs and radiation exposure to patients," Dr. Hendee said. "Radiology is working to reduce unnecessary procedures, but some of the causes of overutilization are beyond radiology's influence."

Recent reports have drawn attention to the ionizing radiation associated with some imaging procedures, most notably CT. There is general agreement in the radiology community that certain imaging and radiation therapy procedures are associated with risks, which in each patient's case must be weighed against the benefit of the diagnostic information or treatment result one specific procedure may provide. Radiologists and medical physicists continue to work together to improve the safety of imaging exams by lowering radiation dose without sacrificing diagnostic quality. Efforts are also under way to better monitor patients' cumulative radiation exposure from multiple imaging exams over time.

To increase awareness of cumulative radiation dose and other radiation risks and to explore opportunities to improve patient safety through appropriate utilization, quality assurance and dose optimization, RSNA has partnered with the American College of Radiology (ACR), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) to launch the Image Wisely™ initiative. Much like the Image Gently initiative did for pediatric radiology, Image Wisely was developed to educate imaging professionals, referring physicians and the public on the relative benefits and risks of medical imaging.

"Rising concerns about the radiation dose associated with medical imaging have prompted vigorous responses at many levels, but perhaps the most important response has been expanded educational activities focused on radiation dose monitoring and control," Dr. Brink said. "Imaging professionals must pledge to reduce the radiation dose as much as reasonably achievable, to seek accreditation of imaging facilities with careful attention to radiation dose monitoring and control, and to participate in dose registries that will allow imaging practitioners to benchmark their dose levels with peer institutions."

ImageWisely.org, directed at physicians and other medical professionals, was officially launched at RSNA 2010. The website's patient-directed content, which answers common patient questions about risks and benefits of medical imaging procedures, is available along with information on radiation exposure, contrast materials, anesthesia, radiation therapy procedures and other safety concerns on RadiologyInfo.org.

"These websites strive to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date information about radiation safety from expert sources to help patients and their physicians make informed decisions when considering the use of powerful imaging tests which can potentially save lives, help determine whether a therapy is working or avoid an unnecessary surgery," Dr. Wald said.

Teenage great white sharks are awkward biters

Adolescent great white sharks may be too weak to capture and kill large marine mammals

The jaws of adolescent great white sharks may be too weak to capture and kill large marine mammals, according to a new study published in the Journal of Biomechanics by an international team of scientists.

The researchers also found that, unlike mammals, sharks can maintain high bite forces no matter how widely their jaws are open, thanks to a unique jaw muscle arrangement that has helped them to be among the most successful predators of all time.

The study is the first of its kind to use sophisticated three-dimensional computer models and advanced engineering techniques to examine how different sharks hunt and kill prey.

Detailed computer simulations examined the feeding behaviour of two threatened shark species: the harmless grey nurse – or sand tiger - and the notorious great white.

Digital models revealed that the jaws of grey nurse sharks are spring-loaded for a rapid strike on small, fast-moving fish, while those of great whites are better suited for a powerful bite on prey ranging in size from small fish to large marine mammals.

"We were surprised that although the teeth and jaws of our sub-adult great white shark looked the part and the muscles were there to drive them, the jaws themselves just couldn't handle the stress associated with big bites on big prey," says study co-author Dr Stephen Wroe, who heads the Computational Biomechanics Research Group in the UNSW School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences.

The reason for this appears to be that until great whites reach a length of about 3 metres or more their jaws haven't developed enough stiff mineralised cartilage to resist the forces involved.

The 2.5 metre great white shark used for the study was caught by the NSW Bather Protection Program. "It is hard to believe, but at this size great whites are basically just awkward teenagers that can't hunt large prey very effectively," says UNSW doctoral student Toni Ferrara, the lead author of the article. "It seems paradoxical that the iconic jaws of great white sharks - made infamous by the classic Steven Spielberg movie Jaws - are actually rather vulnerable when these sharks are young. Great white sharks are not born super-predators, they take years to become formidable hunters."

Co-author Dr Vic Peddemors, of the NSW Cronulla Fisheries Research Centre of Excellence, says: "This study may also explain why many of the shark attacks off NSW are aborted after a single exploratory bite, as the great whites involved are usually juveniles that might sustain jaw injury if they persevered with the attack."

New study calls for greater awareness of food supply for children with diabetes

Cincinnati, OH, December 2, 2010 -- Managing diabetes in a child requires a careful balance of insulin, diet, and exercise. Buying essential medical supplies, such as needles and testing strips, adds a financial burden to families. According to a new study soon to be published in The Journal of Pediatrics, the resulting food insecurity that arises from the financial burden of diabetes management increases a child's risk of being hospitalized due to complications from diabetes.

According to study author Dr. Elizabeth Cummings, "A household is food secure when all members have access to food that is safe and varied enough to meet their nutritional needs. Families who are hungry, who use food banks or food stamps, or those who worry about affording food are considered food insecure."

Drs. Cummings and colleagues from Dalhousie University, the IWK Health Centre, and Mount Saint Vincent University interviewed 183 Canadian families with at least one child with diabetes over a 16 month period. They completed a survey that assessed their food security, demographic information (e.g., income, education levels), and strategies used to mitigate the financial burden of their child's diabetes.

The researchers found that 22% of the families they interviewed were food insecure, a significantly higher percentage than the national Canadian rate of 9.2%. Food security is not just a problem in Canada, however. A report released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service states that 17.4 million households had difficulty providing enough food due to lack of resources in 2009.1 According to Dr. Cummings, "Children from food insecure families had poorer diabetes control and were 3.7 times more likely to require hospitalization for diabetes within the past year."

Almost all the families interviewed received some financial support for their diabetes supplies. However, many reported that someone in the family ate less so that the child with diabetes would have enough. "A small number of families reported that they tested their child's blood sugar less often than recommended," co-author Dr. Stacey Marjerrison reports, "or used needles more than once to help manage the cost of their child's diabetes."

Dr. Cummings believes that health professions should be more aware of this issue. "A review of financial support available to families is needed," she asserts. "Improvement of support may result in fewer hospitalizations and thus lower health care costs."

Employer health insurance premiums increased 41 percent from 2003 to 2009

Effective Affordable Care Act implementation could save up to $3,000 per year for family policies by 2020

December 2, 2010, New York, New York—Premiums for employer-sponsored family health insurance increased an average of 41 percent across states from 2003 to 2009, more than three times faster than median incomes, according to a new Commonwealth Fund report. Yet, insurance is buying less. The report found that deductibles per person rose 77 percent, on average. Higher premiums plus higher out-of-pocket costs are putting working families' budgets under stress across the country.

The report, State Trends in Premiums and Deductibles, 2003: How Building on the Affordable Care Act Will Help Stem the Tide of Rising Costs and Eroding Benefits, presents a state-by-state analysis of private employer health insurance costs for the six years before the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed, and projects premiums in 2020 if these historic increases continue. The analysis finds that if premium costs continue to rise at the pace seen from 2003 to 2009, annual premiums would increase by 79 percent, reaching an average of $23,342 per family by 2020.

"Whether you live in Montana, Texas, or New York, private insurance costs have been increasing faster than working family incomes," said Commonwealth Fund Senior Vice President Cathy Schoen, lead author of the study. "For more than a decade, families with job-based insurance have been sacrificing wages to hold on to health insurance. The good news is that the Affordable Care Act reforms provide a foundation to improve coverage and slow health care cost growth in the future."

The report summarizes ACA provisions—insurance, payment incentives, and delivery system reforms—that have the potential to slow the rate of cost growth if successfully tested and adopted by private and public payers. According to the report, if reforms slow historic premium increases by one percentage point per year, annual family premiums would be $2,323 lower by 2020. Slowing premium growth by 1.5 percentage points per year would yield $3,403 in premium savings.

The analysis of state trends from 2003 to 2009 finds that employer-based premiums for family coverage increased an average 41 percent across states, ranging from a 21 percent increase in Delaware to a 59 percent increase in Louisiana. The report found that by 2009, premiums were highest in Alaska, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, Wisconsin and Wyoming, with family premiums in those states exceeding $14,000 a year. Annual family premiums in the lowest cost states—Alabama, Arkansas, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Utah— were also high, ranging from $11,000 to $12,000 per year by 2009.

At the same time, deductibles rose sharply in almost all states, increasing an average of 77 percent from 2003 to 2009 in large as well as small firms. In addition, more workers are paying deductibles—74 percent faced a deductible in 2009 compared to 52 percent in 2003.
"Health insurance is increasingly unaffordable for families, and benefits are being scaled back as employers and workers struggle to keep up in a difficult economy," said Commonwealth Fund President Karen Davis. "If implemented well, provisions in the Affordable Care Act—including some starting this year, such as tax credits for small businesses to provide coverage, dependent coverage for young adults up to age 26, and elimination of co-payments for preventive care—have the opportunity to reverse these unsustainable increases and ensure that families in every state have access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance."
Insurance premiums have been rising much faster than average incomes across the country, the report found. By 2009, total premiums—including employee and employer shares—equaled or exceeded 18 percent of the median household income for the working age population in 26 states, up from 3 states in 2003. No states had premiums averaging less than 14 percent of median incomes in 2009, down from 13 states in 2003. Cost pressures on businesses and working families are particularly acute in Southern and South-central states, where premiums are often high yet incomes lower than national averages.
According to the report, ACA provisions that give states the ability to challenge excessive premium increases, assure a basic level of health coverage for everyone, and provide premium assistance for low- and middle-income families will improve the health insurance marketplace.

The authors note that ACA provisions will also provide a platform for reducing costs while ensuring access to affordable insurance that provides adequate financial security:

  • Restrictions on insurance administrative costs will improve value, directing more premium dollars to medical care.
  • States will have the authority to review and question unreasonable premium increases for all markets. In addition, states will be able to exclude insurers found to display a pattern of unreasonable premium increases from the new health insurance exchanges.
  • The new health insurance exchanges, starting in 2014, will assure individuals and small employers that plans include essential benefits and protection against high medical bills.
  • Starting in 2014, more affordable health insurance options will be available to low- and moderate-income families through exchanges, with federal premium credits to help buy insurance and expansion of Medicaid to low-wage workers and their families.
  • Payment and system reforms will provide physicians and health systems with financial incentives and support to provide better care and reduce waste and duplication.

Methodology
Data for premiums and deductibles are from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey of employers. State median incomes are from the Census, using two-year averages for the under-65 population. The report uses the average annual increase in premiums across states from 2003 to 2009 to project premiums in 2015 and 2020 if past rates of increase continue. The same inflation rate is applied to all states.

JACS paper demonstrates continuous and controlled translocation of DNA polymer through a nanopore

Fine control of DNA translocation is essential component of nanopore-based DNA strand sequencing


IMAGE: A protein nanopore (blue) embedded in a lipid bilayer is coupled with a DNA polymerase (green). The polymerase sequentially adds complementary bases to single stranded DNA, thus ratcheting it upwards through the nanopore, which is engineered to identify the DNA bases in sequence.


Santa Cruz, CA, USA and Oxford, UK, 2 December 2010: Research published this week in JACS shows continuous and controlled translocation of a single stranded DNA (ssDNA) polymer through a protein nanopore by a DNA polymerase enzyme. The paper by researchers at the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) provides the foundation for a molecular motor, an essential component of Strand Sequencing using nanopores. Researchers at UCSC are collaborating with the UK-based company Oxford Nanopore Technologies, developers of a nanopore DNA sequencing technology.


The new research advances previous work showing that DNA could be moved through a nanopore using a polymerase. DNA movement in the previous study was performed by a series of polymerases and required complex electronics for control. Improvements noted in the JACS paper include techniques to allow continuous ssDNA movement, giving an uninterrupted signal as the strand was moved through the nanopore in real time. The enzyme-nanopore construct was active and measurable in a constant electronic field without complex electronics. Controlled initiation of the polymerase processing at the site of the nanopore-enzyme complex allowed sequential measurement of multiple ssDNA molecules using a single experimental setup . Furthermore the polymerase exhibited tenacious binding with the DNA polymer, unlike previous enzymes researched in similar conditions. These results demonstrate that qualities of the phi29 DNA polymerase are commensurate with a strand sequencing technology.


In the 'strand sequencing' method of nanopore DNA sequencing, ionic current through a protein nanopore is measured and current disruptions used to identify bases on a ssDNA polymer in sequence, as it translocates the pore. Two key challenges for this method are: engineering a nanopore to enable identification of individual bases when a ssDNA polymer spans the pore and a mechanism for controlling translocation of ssDNA at a consistent and appropriate speed to enable base identification through electronic measurements. Translocation techniques described in this paper are compatible with base identification technology being performed in the laboratories of Oxford Nanopore Technologies and its collaborators.


"This work with the phi29 polymerase has allowed us to make important progress on a key element of DNA strand sequencing," said investigator Professor Mark Akeson of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "While previous work showed that translocation control was possible in theory, this work shows that DNA translocation control is achievable in conditions that are compatible with an electronic sequencing technology. We look forward to further collaboration with Oxford Nanopore to realise this research."


"The 'strand sequencing' method of DNA sequencing using a nanopore has been studied for many years, but this paper shows for the first time that DNA can be translocated by an enzyme using methods that are consistent with a high throughput electronic technology," said Dr Gordon Sanghera, CEO of Oxford Nanopore. "We are excited by this work and its potential when coupled with additional recent developments in DNA base identification on DNA strands, the other critical element for strand sequencing."


Credit: Oxford Nanopore Technologies

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